Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, improving knowledge about this group of diseases is very important for early recognition of symptoms as well as effective prevention.
Cardiovascular disease is any problem or disorder that arises in the heart, blood vessels, and circulatory system. It is also the leading cause of death globally.
Therefore, if you have any cardiovascular disease, you need to quickly comply with timely treatment interventions. To do that, you first need to know the symptoms of cardiovascular diseases and how to prevent them.
Cardiovascular diseases include: Vascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, myocarditis, arrhythmias and heart failure. Cardiovascular disease appears silently but leaves many serious consequences for the health and life of the patient.
- 1 Some common diseases
- 1.1 1. Coronary artery disease:
- 1.2 2. Cardiomyopathy:
- 1.3 3. High blood pressure heart disease:
- 1.4 4. Heart failure:
- 1.5 5. Chronic heart disease also known as cardiopulmonary disease is caused by high blood pressure.
- 1.6 6. Arrhythmia:
- 1.7 7. Inflammatory heart disease:
- 1.8 8. Heart valve disease due to the effect of the elasticity of the heart valve.
- 1.9 9. Cerebrovascular disease caused by blocked arteries supplying blood to the brain.
- 1.10 10. Peripheral artery disease caused by the inability of blood to reach the arms and legs.
- 1.11 11. Congenital heart disease:
- 1.12 12. Rheumatic heart disease due to the effects of rheumatic fever caused by streptococcal bacteria.
- 2 Some of the most common diseases of the heart
- 3 3. Atherosclerosis
- 4 4. Myocardial ischemia
- 5 5. Myocardial Infarction
- 6 6. Myocarditis
- 7 7. Heart failure
Some common diseases
1. Coronary artery disease:
Coronary artery disease, also known as coronary heart disease, includes atherosclerotic heart disease, ischemic heart disease. The disease is caused by the accumulation of plaque in the arteries leading to heart attacks. This is one of the common heart diseases and can lead to extremely dangerous complications.
Coronary artery disease is one of the most common heart diseases
The cause is the weakening of the heart muscle and leads to heart failure. Cardiomyopathy if not treated early can cause many bad complications.
3. High blood pressure heart disease:
Caused by increased blood pressure or high blood pressure. High blood pressure directly affects the heart and arteries. Therefore, to prevent as well as treat high blood pressure heart disease, it is necessary to treat and control blood pressure well.
4. Heart failure:
Heart failure is a common cardiovascular disease. It is caused by lack of blood flow in the cardiovascular system.
5. Chronic heart disease also known as cardiopulmonary disease is caused by high blood pressure.
Arrhythmia is a manifestation of many different cardiovascular diseases. A fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.
7. Inflammatory heart disease:
Endocarditis, myocarditis and dilated heart chambers. This is inflammation of the heart to varying degrees.
8. Heart valve disease due to the effect of the elasticity of the heart valve.
9. Cerebrovascular disease caused by blocked arteries supplying blood to the brain.
10. Peripheral artery disease caused by the inability of blood to reach the arms and legs.
11. Congenital heart disease:
The disease occurs at birth, when the heart does not form or does not work properly.
12. Rheumatic heart disease due to the effects of rheumatic fever caused by streptococcal bacteria.
Some of the most common diseases of the heart
1. High blood pressure
High blood pressure (or hypertension) is a chronic disease where the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries is too high. High blood pressure puts a lot of pressure on the heart (increases the burden on the heart) and is the cause of many serious cardiovascular complications such as: stroke, heart failure, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction. heart,…
High blood pressure is a chronic disease that occurs when the pressure of blood against the walls of the arteries is higher than normal. According to the guidelines for the treatment of high blood pressure of the Ministry of Health in 2010, hypertension is defined as when the systolic blood pressure is > 140 mmHg and/or the diastolic blood pressure is >= 90 mmHg.
Most high blood pressure in adults has no known cause (primary hypertension), with only about 10% of cases having a cause (secondary hypertension). The cause of high blood pressure can be discovered through history taking, physical examination, and routine laboratory findings. Some cases of high blood pressure that need attention to find the cause include: hypertension at a young age (<30 years), resistant hypertension, advanced or malignant hypertension.
2. Heart valve disease
Heart valve disease occurs when one or more heart valves do not work properly to allow blood to flow in one direction. There are two common types of valvular heart disease, which are regurgitation and stenosis.
Heart valve stenosis: When the valve leaves are no longer soft, thickened or adhered to the edges of the valve, limiting the ability to open and impeding the flow of blood through it. The heart has to pump harder to force blood through the narrowing.
Regurgitation: This is when the valve cannot close properly, causing some of the blood to back up into the chambers of the heart that previously pumped blood. Valve regurgitation is usually caused by a retraction, degeneration or dilation of the annulus, or an excessive length of the valvular ligament or rupture of the suspensory ligament of the heart valve. When the valve is open, the heart has to work harder to make up for the loss of blood volume due to reflux and to process the excess blood volume for the next contraction.
In some cases, valvular disease may present with a combination of stenosis and regurgitation and disease of more than one valve in the same patient.
The arterial system is responsible for transporting blood from the heart, carrying a lot of oxygen and nutrients to the body. Over the years, fats, cholesterol and other substances are deposited on the walls of blood vessels (called atheroma) causing narrowing of the lumen, impeding blood flow. It’s called atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis can occur in many vascular systems such as: carotid, coronary, lower extremity vessels… and causes many related diseases. Atherosclerosis is a gradual process that begins at a young age. The age at which atherosclerotic events occur is gradually getting younger. The exact cause of the disease is still unknown, but many factors are known to contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The onset of atherosclerotic plaque formation may be due to damage to the vascular endothelium. Several factors can cause damage to the endothelium of blood vessels such as: High blood pressure, high levels of lipids in the blood, smoking, high blood sugar.
4. Myocardial ischemia
Myocardial ischemia (also known as myocardial ischemia) is a disease that occurs when blood flow to the heart is reduced, causing the heart to not receive enough oxygen needed for the contraction and ejection of the blood. Decreased blood flow to the heart is the result of a partial or complete blockage of the branches of a heart artery (coronary artery). Myocardial ischemia reduces the pumping ability of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle, in many cases leading to arrhythmias and myocardial infarction. The sudden blockage of the coronary artery can cause a myocardial infarction. The cause of cardiac ischemia is mainly coronary atherosclerosis, accounting for more than 90%.
Some patients with ischemic heart disease have no symptoms. However, when signs and symptoms do appear, the most common is pain in the chest area, usually the left side of the body (angina). In addition, the symptoms of ischemic heart disease may be easier to recognize, including: pain in the neck or jaw, pain in the shoulder or arm, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath with physical activity, nausea, and vomiting. vomiting, sweating, fatigue.
5. Myocardial Infarction
Myocardial infarction occurs when there is a sudden complete or partial occlusion of one of these two blood vessels or both. If an area of the heart muscle dies due to ischemia, then the pumping function of the heart is no longer as complete as before, causing consequences such as heart failure, cardiogenic shock, sudden cardiac death, etc.
The most common cause of myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis. This condition occurs because atherosclerotic plaque accumulates over time and adheres to the walls of blood vessels, the composition includes cholesterol, calcium, cell debris.
From about 30 years old, in the patient’s body, the process of formation and development of atherosclerotic plaques begins. This process takes from a few years to several decades.
In subjects with a number of risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, dyslipidemia, and diabetes that contribute to vascular damage over time. It is these disorders that make the walls of blood vessels more susceptible to the deposition and adhesion of cholesterol molecules.
Myocarditis is a disease that occurs when the heart muscle is inflamed by infectious factors, chemicals or many cases of unknown cause. The disease can occur in even healthy people without heart disease. The disease causes high sudden death if not detected and treated promptly. The cause of myocarditis is due to the invasion of viruses that attack the body, especially the Coxacki virus, due to the use of certain drugs or chemicals, an increase in thyroid hormone.
People with early-stage cardiomyopathy often have no signs and symptoms. As the condition progresses, signs and symptoms appear including: shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, chest pain, leg swelling, high blood pressure, dizziness…
Myocarditis causes sudden death and can occur in healthy people without pre-existing heart disease.
7. Heart failure
Heart failure is a medical condition in which the heart is weakened and cannot complete its normal function of pumping blood to the body (a workload compared to a normal person’s heart and the efficiency of pumping blood away). nourishment of organs in the body is reduced). Patients with heart failure always face cardiovascular events.
The degree of heart failure of the patient is assessed based on functional symptoms and exercise capacity, divided into 4 levels:
Grade 1 heart failure: Considered as potential heart failure, the patient can still exercise and do normal activities, with no signs of shortness of breath, fatigue or chest pain. It is difficult to detect heart failure at this latent stage.
Heart failure grade 2: Mild heart failure, when resting, the patient does not feel any symptoms, but when exercising, he notices shortness of breath, fatigue and palpitations. These signs may be transient or too mild for the patient to consider as a symptom of disease
Heart failure grade 3: Moderate heart failure. At this stage, the patient is quite markedly restricted in movement and daily activities. At rest, the symptoms subside, but with strenuous exercise there is severe shortness of breath, gasping, fatigue, palpitations. The patient at this time began to feel anxious and went to the hospital for a checkup. Therefore, treatment usually begins in stage 3 of heart failure
Heart failure grade 4: Severe heart failure. The patient feels tired all the time, is almost unable to do any physical activity, daily activities become very difficult and can only do light tasks, shortness of breath. appear even at rest. Patients have to be hospitalized more often.
Most heart problems can be treated with medication, intervention, or repair or replacement surgery. Depending on the cause and symptoms of the disease (fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain), your doctor will choose the right treatment for you. To prevent disease, you need to keep your body healthy. When you are tired, you must check your heart immediately, do not work too hard, and do not expose to chemicals. In particular, when hyperthyroidism goiter needs to be treated thoroughly.
General sources and references of experts