- 1 Some things to know about high blood pressure
- 2 1. What is high blood pressure?
- 3 2. What is high blood pressure?
- 4 3. Symptoms of high blood pressure
- 5 5 things to keep in mind for patients with high blood pressure
Some things to know about high blood pressure
Hypertension is one of the leading contributors to death globally. High blood pressure is a silent killer and carries a high risk of serious cardiovascular events for patients.
Worldwide, the rate of hypertension is up to nearly 20% (according to the World Health Organization). In the United States, according to the latest analysis published by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the rate of hypertension is up to nearly 30%. In the United States, about a quarter of the population has high blood pressure (about 58.4 million people). The prevalence of hypertension in the United States increases with age, meaning that about half of the U.S. population >60 years of age has hypertension.
What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure (BP) is the force the blood exerts on the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure is measured in mmHg which is determined by measuring blood pressure.
When do you know you have high blood pressure?
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hypertension is diagnosed when the mean value of at least two measurements of systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or mean value of diastolic blood pressure áp 90 mmHg. , for at least two consecutive visits. Currently, the use of home blood pressure monitors is very popular and convenient for patients to monitor their condition. To measure blood pressure at home to confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to ensure 3 things:
1. Each blood pressure measurement needs to be measured twice in a row, about 1 minute apart in a sitting position.
2. Need to measure blood pressure 2l/day, preferably once in the morning and once in the evening.
3. Need to measure blood pressure continuously at least 4l/day, ideally 7 days. Discard the first day and use the mean of the remaining measurements (≥135/85 mmHg) to confirm the diagnosis.
Pending confirmation of hypertension, investigations should be performed to detect end-organ damage (such as left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic kidney disease, and hypertensive fundus disease) and assess cardiac risk. circuit.
People with normal blood pressure should have their blood pressure re-measured every 2 years, and people with pre-hypertension should make lifestyle changes and recheck after 1 year.
Causes of high blood pressure?
Up to 90-95% of essential hypertension is called primary hypertension and is defined as high blood pressure for which obvious secondary causes are not identified. The rest is secondary hypertension when there are obvious causes (heart, kidneys, etc.). Hypertension due to renal vascular disease, although accounting for only 2-3% of people with hypertension, is also one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. The majority of hypertension due to renal vascular disease is directly related to renal hypoperfusion, a consequence of renal artery stenosis, or one of their branches…. Or adrenocortical hypertension, alteration in aldosterone secretion or Cushing’s syndrome, Corn’s syndrome, etc. There are also changes in the humoral nervous system due to inappropriate activation of the system of antidiuretic hormones, which disturbs the diuretic function due to increased sodium excretion. blood pressure and lead to chronic hypertension.
Symptoms of high blood pressure?
When high blood pressure usually has very few symptoms, there may be headaches, nervousness, easy fatigue, chest pain, shortness of breath… There are many cases of high blood pressure but do not know because there are no unusual symptoms.
Hypertension – “silent killer”?
Hypertension is poor in symptoms but has many serious complications for patients and leaves heavy consequences for families and society. The disease has many complications such as: angina pectoris, cerebral palsy, cerebral hemorrhage, kidney failure, retinal artery hypertension, vestibular disorders, blindness….When the patient is not properly treated, it will be very difficult. danger and the risk of serious complications is greatly increased. So what is the goal when treating high blood pressure for a patient? It is the treatment of the secondary cause (if any), if the cause cannot be treated, or it is essential hypertension, the goal of treatment is to eliminate the risk factor, control the blood pressure level to prevent. symptoms.
Effective treatment for high blood pressure?
Clinical trials have shown that treating hypertension reduces cardiovascular events. However, in fact, the role of antihypertensive drugs in preventing stroke and death from coronary heart disease is not high. There are many reasons for this, such as: low proportion of patients receiving adequate therapy, lack of consideration for comorbidities, blood pressure levels to initiate therapy and blood pressure goals being too high.
How long to control blood pressure?
It should be recalled that once a diagnosis of hypertension is made, it requires ongoing and lifelong treatment. During treatment, blood pressure is controlled, if the drug is stopped suddenly, blood pressure increases sharply and the risk of complications is highest at this time.
High blood pressure is a common and dangerous disease. Therefore, hypertension needs to be diagnosed and treated early to prevent dangerous cardiovascular events.
High blood pressure is a dangerous cardiovascular disease that is considered a “silent killer” because the entire progression of the disease often takes place in silence without symptoms. Currently, Vietnam has about 12 million people infected, meaning that on average, 1 in 5 adults has the disease. In 2016, this rate was at an alarming rate with more than 40% of adults suffering from hypertension.
1. What is high blood pressure?
High blood pressure (or hypertension) is a chronic disease where the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries is too high. High blood pressure puts a lot of pressure on the heart (increases the burden on the heart) and is the cause of many serious cardiovascular complications such as: cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction. ,…
There are several main types of high blood pressure, including:
Essential hypertension (or primary, hypertension): no specific cause, accounting for up to 90% of cases;
Secondary hypertension (High blood pressure is a symptom of some other disease): Associated with some diseases of the kidneys, arteries, heart valve disease and some endocrine diseases;
Isolated systolic hypertension: When only systolic blood pressure rises while diastolic blood pressure is normal;
Hypertension during pregnancy, including gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: Warning for some cardiovascular risks during pregnancy.
With high blood pressure, the pressure of blood circulating in the arteries increases, putting more pressure on the tissues and causing damage to the blood vessels over time.
2. What is high blood pressure?
As mentioned above, blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the artery walls. Blood pressure is determined based on 2 numbers (systolic blood pressure / diastolic blood pressure):
Systolic blood pressure (corresponding to the stage when the heart contracts to eject blood): It has a higher value because the blood in the arteries is now being pushed by the heart.
Diastolic blood pressure (corresponding to the resting period between two consecutive heartbeats): Lower value because the blood vessels are not now under pressure to eject blood from the heart.
To answer the question “How high is high blood pressure”, a series of treatment guidelines from many countries, associations and leading scientists in the world have been released. The diagnosis and treatment strategies of cardiologists in our country often follow the updated treatment guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). According to the recently updated ESC guidelines in 2018, depending on the severity, high blood pressure is classified as follows:
Optimal blood pressure: Below 120/80 mmHg;
Normal blood pressure: 120/80 mmHg or higher;
High normal blood pressure: 130/85 mmHg or higher;
Grade 1 hypertension: 140/90 mmHg or higher;
Grade 2 hypertension: 160/100 mmHg or higher;
Grade 3 hypertension: 180/110 mmHg or higher;
Isolated systolic hypertension: When the systolic blood pressure is 140 mmHg or higher, while the diastolic blood pressure is less than 90 mmHg
3. Symptoms of high blood pressure
Most symptoms of high blood pressure are mild. In fact, most hypertensive patients are unable to notice any obvious signs or symptoms, even though the disease is already quite advanced. A small number of patients with hypertension may present with some transient symptoms such as headache, dyspnea, or, rarely, epistaxis.
True to the name that many scientists have given to the disease: High blood pressure is a “silent killer”, the symptoms of the disease are not obvious and most do not occur until the disease has progressed to adulthood. very serious stage. At this time, cardiovascular complications can suddenly appear and take the patient’s life in the blink of an eye.
4. Causes of high blood pressure
As mentioned, most cases of hypertension have no known cause and are referred to as essential hypertension. This type is usually genetic, more common in men.
In addition, secondary high blood pressure is the result of some diseases such as kidney disease, thyroid disease, adrenal gland tumor or effects caused by birth control pills, cold medicine, cocaine, alcohol, and tobacco. This type accounts for only about 5-10% of all high blood pressure cases. Definitive treatment of secondary causes can resolve the disease. For high blood pressure caused by an unwanted side effect of the drug, it can take several weeks after stopping the drug for blood pressure to return to normal. In children, especially those under 10 years of age, with secondary hypertension, the cause is often caused by another disease, such as kidney disease.
Gestational hypertension is a simple form of hypertension that usually occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. Meanwhile, preeclampsia also occurs after 12 weeks of pregnancy, but is accompanied by edema and protein in the water. urine. Causes of these forms of hypertension in pregnancy can be severe anemia, excessive amniotic fluid, pregnancy with the first child, multiple pregnancies, young women under 20 years old or tall over 35 years old, history high blood pressure or diabetes…
5. Who is at risk for high blood pressure?
Here are some common types of high blood pressure:
Older people: The blood vessel wall system can no longer maintain its elasticity as before, leading to high blood pressure;
Gender: The proportion of men under 45 years old is higher than that of women, however, postmenopausal women are more likely to have high blood pressure than men of this age;
Family history: The risk of developing high blood pressure is usually higher for family members (parents or siblings) with a history of cardiovascular disease.
The following factors increase your risk of developing high blood pressure, including:
Overweight and obesity;
Sedentary lifestyle, inactivity;
Eating too much salt;
Abuse of alcohol, beer;
6. Treatment of high blood pressure
The goal of treatment for high blood pressure is to keep the patient’s blood pressure stable, usually below 140/90 mmHg for the overall blood pressure goal. However, for patients with high blood pressure with associated conditions such as diabetes or chronic kidney disease, a more rigorous course of treatment will be recommended to keep blood pressure stable below 130. /80 mmHg. Note that target blood pressure levels may vary from patient to patient. The following are treatments for high blood pressure:
6.1. Lifestyle change
Non-drug measures always play an extremely important role in the general treatment process. On the advice of doctors, patients can control their blood pressure by:
Adjust your diet: Healthier and less salt (less than 6g/day);
Exercise regularly and moderately;
Try to maintain an ideal weight, lose weight according to the instructions;
Stop or minimize drinking alcohol, quit smoking;
Avoid sudden colds;
Good control of related diseases;
Use medications to treat high blood pressure exactly as directed by your doctor;
Regularly monitor blood pressure changes at home with an appropriate monitor.
6.2. Medicines for high blood pressure
If lifestyle changes do not provide much benefit in improving the condition, the doctor will consider giving the patient a prescription.
Although high blood pressure treatment regimens have been proposed and tested many times. However, throughout the course of the disease, the doctor will monitor and may change, increase or decrease the dose, add or remove drugs until the most suitable treatment regimen is determined for the patient. patient. Please note the health situation before and after taking the drug to inform the doctor about unwanted effects while taking the drug according to the regimen. Take medicine regularly to stabilize blood pressure. Treatment of hypertension is lifelong treatment. Do not arbitrarily stop treatment, it is necessary to consult a specialist.
Besides, high blood pressure can also be well controlled with antihypertensive drugs under the guidance of traditional medicine doctors.
6.3. Treatment of high blood pressure in an emergency
Some high blood pressure emergencies require immediate treatment in the emergency room or intensive care unit, as the risk of death is high. The patient may be given oxygen and emergency antihypertensive medication to quickly improve the situation.
Most of the cardiovascular diseases in our country, especially common chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, the problem of treatment adherence is always a headache for doctors. Because the treatment often requires a combination of drugs, leading to patients forgetting to take medication, or having medicine but not taking it, or taking drugs not according to the doctor’s instructions, the result is that the effectiveness of hypertension treatment is not effective. high. Therefore, patients need to be really serious about their own treatment, and work well with their doctors to maximize the effectiveness of treatment.
5 things to keep in mind for patients with high blood pressure
In fact, up to 90-95% of cases of hypertension have no known cause. A patient is considered hypertensive when the systolic blood pressure is 140 mmHg or higher and/or the diastolic blood pressure is 90 mmHg or higher. This disease is common in the elderly, causing a very serious impact on health. Here’s what you need to know about this deadly disease.
1. Keep your body warm
Cold weather is a very unfavorable factor for people with high blood pressure. Therefore, people with high blood pressure need to know how to keep their body warm, especially keeping their head, neck and feet warm
Avoid sudden temperature changes, the body cannot adapt quickly leading to cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction
People with high blood pressure should not wake up too early, according to statistics there are many strokes or heart attacks in the morning in the elderly, who have the habit of exercising early in the morning. Because after a night, the body is often less responsive to external changes, blood vessels are less elastic and blood circulation is poorer. If you get up too early, when you step out into the cold wind, your blood pressure will rise, which is the cause of stroke and heart attack.
2. Be careful when taking medicine
Do not arbitrarily increase – decrease or stop taking the drug: self-adjusting the dose is extremely dangerous. Many patients, after taking the drug, experience side effects of the drug or when the blood pressure has returned to normal, then voluntarily reduce the dose, or even stop using the drug. However, when you do not take enough medicine or do not take it, your blood pressure can suddenly rise, causing a stroke. In addition, there are patients who take the drug forever, but the blood pressure is still high, so they arbitrarily increase the dose, taking an overdose can increase the risk of causing patients to have side effects of the drug such as cough, difficulty breathing, insomnia …or have an excessive drop in blood pressure, which can even cause cardiovascular collapse, which is life-threatening.
Adherence to taking medication: Adhering to medication time is important in the treatment of high blood pressure. How to take medication “arbitrarily”, remembering when to take it at that time not only does not bring effective treatment but also make the patient “take the medicine like nothing”.
3. About nutrition:
Lose weight if the patient is overweight. Maintain a light diet, less than 6g salt/day. Eat more potassium-rich foods such as tomatoes, bananas, papaya, green beans, black sesame, spinach, amaranth… Do not eat animal fat, animal organs or fast foods, salty foods for many days such as: pickled cucumber, shrimp paste, shrimp paste… Especially say no to alcohol, tobacco. Should drink 1 full glass of warm water (can add a little honey) and every morning.
For the elderly, if there is a sudden weight gain, they must go to the laboratory to check for diabetes.
4. About movement:
It is necessary to maintain regular exercise of 30 minutes or more per day of sports suitable for their strength such as walking, jogging, cycling, swimming …
5. Good use of personal blood pressure monitors
Self-measurement of blood pressure is especially useful for patients with fluctuating blood pressure
+ Time of measurement: in the morning, from waking up to having breakfast before taking the medicine and at night before going to bed, before taking the medicine.
+ Measurement rules: after resting for 1 minute, place the meter on the wrist, bend the arm to move the wrist at the level of the heart. Apply the rule of three, measure 3 times every morning and 3 times every night, each time at least 1 minute apart for 3 consecutive days, note the measurement results with the date, time and medication being taken. Show these numbers to your doctor during your visit.